National Museum

Recap of 5th APTCCARN Meeting | Natural Disasters and Cultural Heritage in the Philippines: Knowledge Sharing, Decision Making and Conservation

Dr Nicole Tse, Claire Grech, Sabine Cotte and Pam Soriano, Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

Earlier this year in April, the 5th Asia Pacific Tropical Climate Conservation Art Research Network (APTCCARN) Forum was held in Bohol, Philippines and co-hosted by the National Museum of the Philippines, the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation and SEAMEO Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts. Again the event drew together over 60 participants from across the Asia Pacific region and focused on the practical aftermath and realities of disaster preparedness and recovery.

APTCCARN 5th Meeting crop.jpeg

Although this forum focussed on the central themes of APTCCARN to develop regionally relevant conservation responses, it differed from previous meetings in stressing the importance of knowledge sharing. In situating the conference in Bohol – an island in the centre of the Philippines- impacted by a major 2013 earthquake and the annual threat of floods and typhoons – awareness of the effect of natural disasters on cultural heritage, people and places, was ever present. It was a genuine chance to experience and hear the stories of the real events, journeys and future aspirations of parishioners, community, heritage professionals and spokespersons. The forum took the form of dynamic group activities and site visits, culminating in a series of practical sharing sessions and assessments for the ecclesiastical collections held by the Parishes in Maribojoc, Cortes, and Antequera.

The intended themes of the forum were disaster recovery and cultural materials conservation in the community; to investigate the dynamics of change; recent and shared experiences; and cultural materials salvage, rehabilitation, revitalisation and management. In truth, some of these were discussed more effectively and with more clarity than others, but what was most refreshing was the emergence of other themes. These resonated through many of the talks, starting with the opening sessions by the Honourable and Cabinet Secretary Leoncio Evasco Jr., and Governor Edgardo Chatto. Provincial Governor of Bohol. From the start with the unexpected weather and delay in flights of our opening keynotes, we were reminded of the need for flexibility and how unpredictable climates are part of the ‘new normal’. For the 5th APTCCARN, April was deliberately chosen as the last month of summer before the typhoon season, but this was clearly wrong.


Themes such as flexibility, optimism and resilience of the Parishioners and community were central to discussions, which then transpired to the recovery and salvage efforts of the cultural heritage in the aftermath of the earthquake. Rather than relegating the damaged churches and collections to the status of a ruin, and in stabilising and building the social fabric of the community, the government and church now promote Bohol as a ‘heritage conservation laboratory’ and supports it as such. The scale of work is huge, but the will and investment is present, and the heritage destruction is being viewed as an opportunity to build new opportunities for a community of artists, youth and heritage workers. We certainly saw such work in the presentation by Mr Angel Bautista (National Museum of the Philippines) and Mr Larry Cruz (National Historical Commission of the Philippines) where within three years so much has been achieved. The scale and co-ordination is impressive. While sitting in the temporary parish of Maribojoc, we could at the same time experience the scale of the work and how quickly the site had been cleared, the ecclesiastical collections retrieved and temporary infrastructure put into place.

Overwhelmingly, the importance of community engagement, volunteerism, support, and participation was highlighted as integral to the success of recovery efforts. This was exemplified in the cases of Maribojoc Parish and the tireless efforts of Ma’am Fe and StarDust volunteers, the Mayor of Cortes, and Ms Perlina Alo at Baclayon Church. The people in the parishes of Maribojoc, Antequera and Cortes kindly opened their storage places and explained the various issues they encountered post disaster recovery; we thank them deeply for this.


It was also ratifying for Dr Rujaya Abhakorn, Centre Director of SEAMEO SPAFA, to provide a background and framework for the collaboration and support for the ASEAN delegates from Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. SEAMEO SPAFA participation also celebrates the 50 years of ASEAN, with the Philippines as the official chair, emphasising regional approaches. While the collaboration between the National Museum of the Philippines and the University of Melbourne celebrates 70 years of diplomatic relations between the Philippines and Australia. And the University of Melbourne has a long relationship with the Province of Bohol, having first worked with Father Ted Torralba 20 years ago on church heritage. We were reminded that political value and policy alignment are necessary mechanisms for cultural conservation work.

We were treated to Father Ted’s humorous and insightful keynote. His sermon was thought provoking and entertaining, and he recounted how his lengthy sermons often went over lunch. Again resilience and opportunity resonated with Bohol viewed as a ‘heritage conservation laboratory’ having moved on from its earlier classification as ‘Bohol as the centre of Church heritage’. The intention to Build Bohol Back Better (also echoing Sabine Cotte’s talk on Nepal) and the laboratory as a place for improvement, highlights the leadership of the Diocese of Tagbilaran. Director Jeremy Barns from the National Museum, commented on the value and opportunity for capacity building that the disasters had in effect created. Many of us would remember the raw experiences Father Ted and Jeremy Barnes first shared with us at ICOM-CC Melbourne in 2014.

In true Asian diplomacy, we shared ideas and ate well. Overall there was diverse and wide ranging experiences of disasters and their effects on heritage from Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.


Talks by local experts included Professor Maricor Soriano’s imaging of Spanish-era maps of Metro Manila and Cebu in order to discover lost bodies of water, that may pose a threat to human life and cultural heritage during flooding events; Ms Maria Lourdes Po’s presentation on the importance of documentation in the everyday preventive care of collections, and how documentation can be mobilised to assist during disaster preparation and recovery efforts of collections; and Ms Josephine Francisco’s practical guide to caring for paper-based objects following disasters, including recommendations of equipment and resources. Mr Robert Balarbar exposed the resource realities of disaster response and the difference between the risks immediately after the event (event risks) and the risks to the collection after the initial allocation of funds, time and resources has waned (progressive risk). Engineer Jainab Aimee Tahil-Altillero argued the case for and provided an example of interdisciplinary teams and their benefits during disaster response.

The SEAMEO SPAFA session papers highlighted the myriad of disasters that collections in Southeast Asia have suffered, and the resilience and ingenuity used to prepare, salvage, and conserve collections for these events, including an inspired storage cage to secure objects during earthquakes presented by Ms Septina Wardhani. While the risks associated with flooding and potential for damage was highlighted by Ms Thi Anh Van Huynh from Vietnam and Ms Puangporn Srisomboon from Thailand, the latter who also demonstrated the necessity of understanding damage through conservation science in order to facilitate conservation of objects. Mr Thein Lwin from Myanmar presented the conservation and restoration works that have been undertaken on Bagan Cultural Heritage Region following the 6.5 magnitude earthquake in August, 2016. Mr Zamrul Amri bin Zakaria’s talk revealed how not all countries in the region have been devastated by natural disasters, such as Malaysia, but how all needed to have disaster plans in place in this era of climate change so that we can be prepared for uncertainties.

Other talks by Anne Carter, Christine Ianna, and Professor Robyn Sloggett highlighted the vulnerability of Australian collections to flooding, and the preventive and recovery efforts taken on an institution and community/personal level, and the importance of at-distance support networks. This was also echoed in the presentations by Ms Pattayarach Thamwongsa and Ms Wanvisa Woraward, whose talk was situated in the context of Thailand’s expansive network of local museums, and strategies for building capacity through dissemination of conservation and preservation knowledge in an accessible and relevant way. While informative presentations on seismic risk and preventive strategies were given by Ms Amy Heffernan of the Grimwade Centre.

We want to sustain this collaboration and continue these conversations. To this effect, we will upload some of the resource documents on the APTCCARN website shortly, and you can see the @aptccarn_ , @aptccarn, #aptccarn tags from the forum curated by Asialink Resident Rosie Cook now in Taiwan.

The local organising is thanked deeply especially Assistant Director Dr Ana Labrador of the National Museum and her team Engineer Jainab Aimee Altillero, Robert Balarbar, Camille, Michelle, Sunshine, and Dominic and the National Museum Field Office of Tagbilaran Ms Athena Vitor, Engr. and MC Joel Dahiroc, and Mr Charlie Tantingco.

Finally the forum was made possible with the support of the Australian Government through the Australian-ASEAN Council of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Diocese of Bohol and Provincial Government of Bohol. Four young Australian conservators continued their work in Bohol after the forum with the support of DFAT and Rosie Cook, Amy Heffernan, Elizabeth Long and Karen Wilcox will report on this soon.

Thank you everyone and until the next APTCCARN (so far we have been in Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan and Australia).

Welcome Message from the 5th APTCCARN Meeting | Natural Disasters & Cultural Heritage in the Philippines: Knowledge Sharing, Decision Making & Conservation

From the 5th APTCCARN Organising Committee

Dr Ana Labrador, Founding Member APTCCARN and Assistant Director, National Museum

Dr Nicole Tse, Founding Member, APTCCARN and the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

Claire Grech, 5th APTCCARN Organising Committee and PhD Candidate, the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne


Welcome to the 5th APTCCARN Meeting in Tagbilaran City, Province of Bohol, hosted by the National Museum, Philippines, in collaboration with the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, the University of Melbourne and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (SEAMEO SPAFA).

Since the Asia Pacific Tropical Climate Conservation Art Research Network’s (APTCCARN) inauguration in 2009 at the Balai Seni Negara (National Art Gallery in Malaysia), we have held meetings at the University of Melbourne in Australia, Silpakorn University in Thailand, and Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan. APTCCARN was established in recognition of the need to support a geographically focussed practice of cultural materials conservation in the Asia Pacific and a maturing discipline. Over eight years APTCCARN has built a community of practice from which approaches are emerging and revealing important information about the culture and conditions in the region. It was during the 4th Meeting in Taiwan that the impetus for this meeting arose, where delegates felt the urge to take the knowledge that had been shared and take action in an area of significant need.

This meeting’s focus on the effect of natural disasters on cultural heritage, people, and places is more than pertinent. Here in the Province of Bohol, Philippines, the impact of the 2013 earthquake at 7.2 magnitude is clearly evident, which was soon followed by Typhoon Haiyan and its devastating effects across the Philippines. During the forum, we will hear the stories of the real events, journeys, and future aspirations, being central to the lives of Boholanos. Cultural materials conservation only has purpose as a mindful community of practice and one that is engaged with people, diverse communities, and the global society. So the intended focus of the 5th APTCCARN forum is on people‐to‐people linkages across a diverse range of skills, capabilities, and experiences of cultural heritage recovery and disaster management, in Bohol, Southeast Asia, and beyond. This is critical to the salvage, rehabilitation, and sustained management of Bohol’s cultural assets and heritage, and assets wider afield that will be presented here at the forum.

We know that Southeast Asian nations continue to be among the most vulnerable to climate change, including increases in frequency and severity of extreme weather events. Reported disasters have risen sharply in the recent decade according to the World Disasters Report 2005 of the International Red Cross 2005. The Asia-Pacific region itself is ‘highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and national hazards’ and the Asian Development Bank has ‘pointed out that ‘heat waves, droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones have been more intense and frequent, causing extensive damage to property, assets, and human life’ (Parr, La Viña & Henry 2016, p. 2). While in 2013, most forum participants would know that the Philippines was ranked on the Global Climate Risk Index as the most affected country by extreme weather events, and was ranked 5th overall on a twenty-year time scale (1994-2013). People, places and cultural assets are vulnerable, subject to unpredictable events and uncertainty, which strikes at the core aims of cultural materials conservation, and what we hope to sustain and manage.

So this forum, led by community knowledge holders and cultural heritage practitioners, aims to share recent experiences of natural disasters and cultural heritage recovery projects to communicate and generate ideas around cultural heritage management and its associated uncertainties. With a primary focus on movable cultural heritage, discussions and presentations will include active participation and learning for Asian Pacific participants working in the field of cultural heritage and education, as well as local and international heritage professionals, interested individuals, and Parish communities. It is through these study visits, sharing sessions, group activities and presentations, that meaningful exchanges will take place, and strengthen and expand the APTCCARN network.

The 5th APTCCARN Committee is delighted that the National Museum is hosting this event. Dr Ana Labrador and the local organising committee have worked tirelessly over the past year to arrange the event details to its perfection. Hosting an international event like this takes a lot of commitment and attention to detail, and we deeply thank them. We thank Dr Rujaya Abhakorn, Centre Director of SEAMEO SPAFA, and staff for his opening speech and engaging vision of cultural heritage in the region. Further thanks is extended to our Keynote Speaker, Father Milan Ted Torralba. We thank the Province of Bohol, the parishes of Maribojoc, Cortes, Antequera, and Baclayon for hosting us, and insightful welcome speeches from Governor Edgardo Chatto, and of course Cabinet Secretary Leoncio Evasco Jr, known for his strong and faithful presence in Bohol. Lastly thank you to Diocese of Bohol and Bishop Alberto S. Uy for supporting the forum and making us feel welcome, and our major sponsor the Australian ASEAN Council. Thank you to all speakers, chairs and participants for attending the 5th APTCCARN Meeting on ‘Natural disasters and cultural heritage in the Philippines: Knowledge Sharing, Decision Making and Conservation’. We look forward to the sharing of knowledge and future exchanges.

Download the program here.



• Kreft, S, Eckstein, D, Junghans, L, Kerestan, C & Hagen, U 2015, Global Climate Risk Index 2015 Who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2013 and 1994 to 2013, Briefing Paper, GermanWatch e.V., 32pp, <>

• International Red Cross 2005, World Disasters Report, International Red Cross.

• Parr, B, La Viña, AGM & Henry, D 2016, Philippines climate change agenda: High vulnerability! High ambition?, Briefing Paper 4, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, 16pp,<>.

Originally published online 19 April, 2017

The Conservation Treatment of an Artwork on Paper at the National Museum of the Philippines, Manila

Emily Keppel, Grimwade Centre for the Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

In August 2015, I was fortunate to spend 4 weeks as a conservation intern at the National Museum in Manila, under the supervision of Robert Balarbar. Having completed my training in the dry, temperate climate of Melbourne, Australia, the experience provided a firsthand experience of the challenges of preserving artworks on paper in a tropical climate.

One treatment I undertook was of Nude (1969), an ink brush drawing by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces (b. 1932). Roces was one of the founding members of the Saturday Group (also known as the Taza de Oro Group) that from 1968, would meet every Saturday at the Taza de Oro café in Ermita, Manila. This varied group consisted of artists, writers, collectors, patrons and gallery owners, who would participate in artistic sessions involving still life, figure sketching, portraiture and landscape painting. Nude (1969) is a large ink brush drawing on medium-weight orange ‘rice paper’ that depicts the torso of a reclining female figure. Captured in an impressionistic style, the fluid brushstrokes evoke rapid movement, with the lines varied to imply form. Such qualities suggest that the figure was drawn from life, outside of a wholly ‘academic’ environment. Along with the date of the drawing, these aesthetic features suggest that the drawing may have been created by Roces during one of the Saturday Group sessions at the Taza de Oro café in Manila.

Nude  (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces, ink brush drawing on ‘rice paper’.&nbsp;Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines.&nbsp;Photo by Emily Keppel.

Nude (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces, ink brush drawing on ‘rice paper’. Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines. Photo by Emily Keppel.

Conservation treatment decisions were made following a close examination of the artwork, completion of a thorough condition report, discussions with other conservators in the lab and an awareness of the time and resources available to successfully finish the treatment.

The first stage of the treatment was the removal of the artwork from its mount, which was constructed from poor quality machine-made, ground-wood pulp board, high in lignin content and prone to oxidisation in high temperatures and humidity. This had contributed to yellow staining of the artwork from acid migration and mount-burn. Similarly, in a tropical climate, pressure-sensitive tape deteriorates more rapidly; the adhesives oxidises, yellows and becomes hard and brittle. The degraded pressure-sensitive masking tape used to adhere the artwork to the mount had also caused numerous tears and losses around the edges, as well as mechanical distortions, as the paper had expanded and contracted with fluctuations in humidity.

Detail of  Nude  (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces showing yellowed, acidic mount board and pressure-sensitive masking tape.&nbsp;Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines.&nbsp;Photo by Emily Keppel.

Detail of Nude (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces showing yellowed, acidic mount board and pressure-sensitive masking tape. Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines. Photo by Emily Keppel.

The National Museum of the Philippines is located at the centre of the busy city of Manila, and dust and pollutants pose a constant preservation challenge. A substantial amount of surface dirt was removed from Nude (1969) using soft goat-hair hake brushes, smoke-sponge and Mars Staedtler eraser crumbs.

Detail of  Nude  (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces undergoing dry cleaning to remove surface dirt.&nbsp;Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines.&nbsp;

Detail of Nude (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces undergoing dry cleaning to remove surface dirt. Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines. 

The badly oxidised masking tape was then carefully removed from the soft, fibrous ‘rice paper’ using micro-spatulas and the localised application of acetone.

Detail of  Nude  (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces undergoing removal of pressure-sensitive tape.&nbsp;Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines.

Detail of Nude (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces undergoing removal of pressure-sensitive tape. Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines.

The artwork was also extensively stained with irregular-shaped orange-brown spots, known as ‘foxing’. These brown spots can be the result of metal impurities within the paper substrate, or mould growth. When examined under 10x magnification, the foxing spots on Nude (1969) appear to sit on the surface of the paper, suggesting biological activity. After extensive solubility testing of the paper and media, the artwork was sprayed with a mixture of ethanol and water (80:20) to treat the mould, and washed to reduce the appearance of the foxing. The artwork was laid face-up on a flannel cloth saturated with distilled water, and through capillary action, water-soluble discolouration products were drawn from the paper. Although slow, this method allowed for greater control over the treatment.

Photo showing water-soluble discolouration product removed from the artwork through capillary washing. Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines. Photo by Emily Keppel.&nbsp;

Photo showing water-soluble discolouration product removed from the artwork through capillary washing. Image courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines. Photo by Emily Keppel. 

After drying flat under light weights, the final stage of the conservation treatment was the infilling of losses using a toned Japanese tissue paper of similar weight and methyl cellulose paste.

Details of  Nude  (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces showing before (L) and after (R) in-filling treatment.&nbsp;

Details of Nude (1969) by Alfredo ‘Ding’ Reyes Roces showing before (L) and after (R) in-filling treatment. 

Images courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines.&nbsp;Photos by Emily Keppel.

Images courtesy of the National Museum, Philippines. Photos by Emily Keppel.

As a recent graduate, the opportunity to work alongside with the highly skilled conservators at the National Museum of the Philippines was an extremely rewarding experience. By undertaking this treatment, I gained a clearer understanding of the impact that high temperatures and humidity have on the degradation mechanisms of paper. Learning from conservators who are accustomed to working in a tropical climate, also showed me the importance of knowing the challenges of the climate in which you are working and the impact that humidity and temperature will have on your treatment decisions.


Originally published online on February 10, 2016.