Nicole Tse

Recap of 5th APTCCARN Meeting | Natural Disasters and Cultural Heritage in the Philippines: Knowledge Sharing, Decision Making and Conservation

Dr Nicole Tse, Claire Grech, Sabine Cotte and Pam Soriano, Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

Earlier this year in April, the 5th Asia Pacific Tropical Climate Conservation Art Research Network (APTCCARN) Forum was held in Bohol, Philippines and co-hosted by the National Museum of the Philippines, the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation and SEAMEO Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts. Again the event drew together over 60 participants from across the Asia Pacific region and focused on the practical aftermath and realities of disaster preparedness and recovery.

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Although this forum focussed on the central themes of APTCCARN to develop regionally relevant conservation responses, it differed from previous meetings in stressing the importance of knowledge sharing. In situating the conference in Bohol – an island in the centre of the Philippines- impacted by a major 2013 earthquake and the annual threat of floods and typhoons – awareness of the effect of natural disasters on cultural heritage, people and places, was ever present. It was a genuine chance to experience and hear the stories of the real events, journeys and future aspirations of parishioners, community, heritage professionals and spokespersons. The forum took the form of dynamic group activities and site visits, culminating in a series of practical sharing sessions and assessments for the ecclesiastical collections held by the Parishes in Maribojoc, Cortes, and Antequera.

The intended themes of the forum were disaster recovery and cultural materials conservation in the community; to investigate the dynamics of change; recent and shared experiences; and cultural materials salvage, rehabilitation, revitalisation and management. In truth, some of these were discussed more effectively and with more clarity than others, but what was most refreshing was the emergence of other themes. These resonated through many of the talks, starting with the opening sessions by the Honourable and Cabinet Secretary Leoncio Evasco Jr., and Governor Edgardo Chatto. Provincial Governor of Bohol. From the start with the unexpected weather and delay in flights of our opening keynotes, we were reminded of the need for flexibility and how unpredictable climates are part of the ‘new normal’. For the 5th APTCCARN, April was deliberately chosen as the last month of summer before the typhoon season, but this was clearly wrong.

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Themes such as flexibility, optimism and resilience of the Parishioners and community were central to discussions, which then transpired to the recovery and salvage efforts of the cultural heritage in the aftermath of the earthquake. Rather than relegating the damaged churches and collections to the status of a ruin, and in stabilising and building the social fabric of the community, the government and church now promote Bohol as a ‘heritage conservation laboratory’ and supports it as such. The scale of work is huge, but the will and investment is present, and the heritage destruction is being viewed as an opportunity to build new opportunities for a community of artists, youth and heritage workers. We certainly saw such work in the presentation by Mr Angel Bautista (National Museum of the Philippines) and Mr Larry Cruz (National Historical Commission of the Philippines) where within three years so much has been achieved. The scale and co-ordination is impressive. While sitting in the temporary parish of Maribojoc, we could at the same time experience the scale of the work and how quickly the site had been cleared, the ecclesiastical collections retrieved and temporary infrastructure put into place.

Overwhelmingly, the importance of community engagement, volunteerism, support, and participation was highlighted as integral to the success of recovery efforts. This was exemplified in the cases of Maribojoc Parish and the tireless efforts of Ma’am Fe and StarDust volunteers, the Mayor of Cortes, and Ms Perlina Alo at Baclayon Church. The people in the parishes of Maribojoc, Antequera and Cortes kindly opened their storage places and explained the various issues they encountered post disaster recovery; we thank them deeply for this.

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It was also ratifying for Dr Rujaya Abhakorn, Centre Director of SEAMEO SPAFA, to provide a background and framework for the collaboration and support for the ASEAN delegates from Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. SEAMEO SPAFA participation also celebrates the 50 years of ASEAN, with the Philippines as the official chair, emphasising regional approaches. While the collaboration between the National Museum of the Philippines and the University of Melbourne celebrates 70 years of diplomatic relations between the Philippines and Australia. And the University of Melbourne has a long relationship with the Province of Bohol, having first worked with Father Ted Torralba 20 years ago on church heritage. We were reminded that political value and policy alignment are necessary mechanisms for cultural conservation work.

We were treated to Father Ted’s humorous and insightful keynote. His sermon was thought provoking and entertaining, and he recounted how his lengthy sermons often went over lunch. Again resilience and opportunity resonated with Bohol viewed as a ‘heritage conservation laboratory’ having moved on from its earlier classification as ‘Bohol as the centre of Church heritage’. The intention to Build Bohol Back Better (also echoing Sabine Cotte’s talk on Nepal) and the laboratory as a place for improvement, highlights the leadership of the Diocese of Tagbilaran. Director Jeremy Barns from the National Museum, commented on the value and opportunity for capacity building that the disasters had in effect created. Many of us would remember the raw experiences Father Ted and Jeremy Barnes first shared with us at ICOM-CC Melbourne in 2014.

In true Asian diplomacy, we shared ideas and ate well. Overall there was diverse and wide ranging experiences of disasters and their effects on heritage from Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam.

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Talks by local experts included Professor Maricor Soriano’s imaging of Spanish-era maps of Metro Manila and Cebu in order to discover lost bodies of water, that may pose a threat to human life and cultural heritage during flooding events; Ms Maria Lourdes Po’s presentation on the importance of documentation in the everyday preventive care of collections, and how documentation can be mobilised to assist during disaster preparation and recovery efforts of collections; and Ms Josephine Francisco’s practical guide to caring for paper-based objects following disasters, including recommendations of equipment and resources. Mr Robert Balarbar exposed the resource realities of disaster response and the difference between the risks immediately after the event (event risks) and the risks to the collection after the initial allocation of funds, time and resources has waned (progressive risk). Engineer Jainab Aimee Tahil-Altillero argued the case for and provided an example of interdisciplinary teams and their benefits during disaster response.

The SEAMEO SPAFA session papers highlighted the myriad of disasters that collections in Southeast Asia have suffered, and the resilience and ingenuity used to prepare, salvage, and conserve collections for these events, including an inspired storage cage to secure objects during earthquakes presented by Ms Septina Wardhani. While the risks associated with flooding and potential for damage was highlighted by Ms Thi Anh Van Huynh from Vietnam and Ms Puangporn Srisomboon from Thailand, the latter who also demonstrated the necessity of understanding damage through conservation science in order to facilitate conservation of objects. Mr Thein Lwin from Myanmar presented the conservation and restoration works that have been undertaken on Bagan Cultural Heritage Region following the 6.5 magnitude earthquake in August, 2016. Mr Zamrul Amri bin Zakaria’s talk revealed how not all countries in the region have been devastated by natural disasters, such as Malaysia, but how all needed to have disaster plans in place in this era of climate change so that we can be prepared for uncertainties.

Other talks by Anne Carter, Christine Ianna, and Professor Robyn Sloggett highlighted the vulnerability of Australian collections to flooding, and the preventive and recovery efforts taken on an institution and community/personal level, and the importance of at-distance support networks. This was also echoed in the presentations by Ms Pattayarach Thamwongsa and Ms Wanvisa Woraward, whose talk was situated in the context of Thailand’s expansive network of local museums, and strategies for building capacity through dissemination of conservation and preservation knowledge in an accessible and relevant way. While informative presentations on seismic risk and preventive strategies were given by Ms Amy Heffernan of the Grimwade Centre.

We want to sustain this collaboration and continue these conversations. To this effect, we will upload some of the resource documents on the APTCCARN website shortly, and you can see the @aptccarn_ , @aptccarn, #aptccarn tags from the forum curated by Asialink Resident Rosie Cook now in Taiwan.

The local organising is thanked deeply especially Assistant Director Dr Ana Labrador of the National Museum and her team Engineer Jainab Aimee Altillero, Robert Balarbar, Camille, Michelle, Sunshine, and Dominic and the National Museum Field Office of Tagbilaran Ms Athena Vitor, Engr. and MC Joel Dahiroc, and Mr Charlie Tantingco.

Finally the forum was made possible with the support of the Australian Government through the Australian-ASEAN Council of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Diocese of Bohol and Provincial Government of Bohol. Four young Australian conservators continued their work in Bohol after the forum with the support of DFAT and Rosie Cook, Amy Heffernan, Elizabeth Long and Karen Wilcox will report on this soon.

Thank you everyone and until the next APTCCARN (so far we have been in Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan and Australia).

New Publication | Material Availability & Painting Practice: A Case Study of Singapore Artist Georgette Chen

Read new conservation research on Singapore artist Georgette Chen from the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation and Balai Seni Visual Negara published by the AICCM Bulletin (Taylors & Francis):

O’Donnell, E, Tse, N and Ahmad, A 2015 ‘Material availability and painting practice: a case study of Singapore artist Georgette Chen’, The AICCM Bulletin, vol. 36.2, pp. 1-12, DOI 10.1080/10344233.2015.1127581.

Click here to download the eprint

Welcome Message from the 5th APTCCARN Meeting | Natural Disasters & Cultural Heritage in the Philippines: Knowledge Sharing, Decision Making & Conservation

From the 5th APTCCARN Organising Committee

Dr Ana Labrador, Founding Member APTCCARN and Assistant Director, National Museum

Dr Nicole Tse, Founding Member, APTCCARN and the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

Claire Grech, 5th APTCCARN Organising Committee and PhD Candidate, the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

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Welcome to the 5th APTCCARN Meeting in Tagbilaran City, Province of Bohol, hosted by the National Museum, Philippines, in collaboration with the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, the University of Melbourne and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Regional Centre for Archaeology and Fine Arts (SEAMEO SPAFA).

Since the Asia Pacific Tropical Climate Conservation Art Research Network’s (APTCCARN) inauguration in 2009 at the Balai Seni Negara (National Art Gallery in Malaysia), we have held meetings at the University of Melbourne in Australia, Silpakorn University in Thailand, and Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan. APTCCARN was established in recognition of the need to support a geographically focussed practice of cultural materials conservation in the Asia Pacific and a maturing discipline. Over eight years APTCCARN has built a community of practice from which approaches are emerging and revealing important information about the culture and conditions in the region. It was during the 4th Meeting in Taiwan that the impetus for this meeting arose, where delegates felt the urge to take the knowledge that had been shared and take action in an area of significant need.

This meeting’s focus on the effect of natural disasters on cultural heritage, people, and places is more than pertinent. Here in the Province of Bohol, Philippines, the impact of the 2013 earthquake at 7.2 magnitude is clearly evident, which was soon followed by Typhoon Haiyan and its devastating effects across the Philippines. During the forum, we will hear the stories of the real events, journeys, and future aspirations, being central to the lives of Boholanos. Cultural materials conservation only has purpose as a mindful community of practice and one that is engaged with people, diverse communities, and the global society. So the intended focus of the 5th APTCCARN forum is on people‐to‐people linkages across a diverse range of skills, capabilities, and experiences of cultural heritage recovery and disaster management, in Bohol, Southeast Asia, and beyond. This is critical to the salvage, rehabilitation, and sustained management of Bohol’s cultural assets and heritage, and assets wider afield that will be presented here at the forum.

We know that Southeast Asian nations continue to be among the most vulnerable to climate change, including increases in frequency and severity of extreme weather events. Reported disasters have risen sharply in the recent decade according to the World Disasters Report 2005 of the International Red Cross 2005. The Asia-Pacific region itself is ‘highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and national hazards’ and the Asian Development Bank has ‘pointed out that ‘heat waves, droughts, floods, and tropical cyclones have been more intense and frequent, causing extensive damage to property, assets, and human life’ (Parr, La Viña & Henry 2016, p. 2). While in 2013, most forum participants would know that the Philippines was ranked on the Global Climate Risk Index as the most affected country by extreme weather events, and was ranked 5th overall on a twenty-year time scale (1994-2013). People, places and cultural assets are vulnerable, subject to unpredictable events and uncertainty, which strikes at the core aims of cultural materials conservation, and what we hope to sustain and manage.

So this forum, led by community knowledge holders and cultural heritage practitioners, aims to share recent experiences of natural disasters and cultural heritage recovery projects to communicate and generate ideas around cultural heritage management and its associated uncertainties. With a primary focus on movable cultural heritage, discussions and presentations will include active participation and learning for Asian Pacific participants working in the field of cultural heritage and education, as well as local and international heritage professionals, interested individuals, and Parish communities. It is through these study visits, sharing sessions, group activities and presentations, that meaningful exchanges will take place, and strengthen and expand the APTCCARN network.

The 5th APTCCARN Committee is delighted that the National Museum is hosting this event. Dr Ana Labrador and the local organising committee have worked tirelessly over the past year to arrange the event details to its perfection. Hosting an international event like this takes a lot of commitment and attention to detail, and we deeply thank them. We thank Dr Rujaya Abhakorn, Centre Director of SEAMEO SPAFA, and staff for his opening speech and engaging vision of cultural heritage in the region. Further thanks is extended to our Keynote Speaker, Father Milan Ted Torralba. We thank the Province of Bohol, the parishes of Maribojoc, Cortes, Antequera, and Baclayon for hosting us, and insightful welcome speeches from Governor Edgardo Chatto, and of course Cabinet Secretary Leoncio Evasco Jr, known for his strong and faithful presence in Bohol. Lastly thank you to Diocese of Bohol and Bishop Alberto S. Uy for supporting the forum and making us feel welcome, and our major sponsor the Australian ASEAN Council. Thank you to all speakers, chairs and participants for attending the 5th APTCCARN Meeting on ‘Natural disasters and cultural heritage in the Philippines: Knowledge Sharing, Decision Making and Conservation’. We look forward to the sharing of knowledge and future exchanges.

Download the program here.

 

References

• Kreft, S, Eckstein, D, Junghans, L, Kerestan, C & Hagen, U 2015, Global Climate Risk Index 2015 Who suffers most from extreme weather events? Weather-related loss events in 2013 and 1994 to 2013, Briefing Paper, GermanWatch e.V., 32pp, <http://germanwatch.org/en/download/10333.pdf>

• International Red Cross 2005, World Disasters Report, International Red Cross.

• Parr, B, La Viña, AGM & Henry, D 2016, Philippines climate change agenda: High vulnerability! High ambition?, Briefing Paper 4, Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, 16pp,< www.sustainable.unimelb.edu.au>.

Originally published online 19 April, 2017

Welcome Messages from the 4th APTCCARN Meeting | Embracing Cultural Materials Conservation in the Tropics

From the Host Institution

Kung Jui-chang, President, Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan

The Conservation Center, Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan is pleased to host the 2015 4th APTCCARN Meeting in Taiwan. With a focus on Asia Pacific’s diverse climate, history and future, the meeting aims to embrace cultural materials conservation in the region, our experiences and the future. Issues such as developing a regional practice of cultural materials conservation within the needs, resources, communities and geographic place will be addressed. This is in light of recent extreme weather events, the current reality of the environment and sustainable practices and crosses the themes of:

  • The effect of tropical climates on cultural materials

  • Their unique degradation mechanisms

  • The environment and current realities of collections care

  • Standards and principles of conservation practice in tropical climates

  • The impact of Asia Pacific culture and geography on artists’ material choices, techniques and artists’ intentions

Cheng Shiu University is the professional polytechnic school in southern Taiwan. In 2005, we set up the Conservation Center managed by the Office of Arts and Culture, being engaged in the promotion of arts education and cultural heritage protection work. The Conservation Center integrates all the studies of conservation and restoration about national cultural heritage into the references, developing the professional investigation, with the result that the related departments enable to solve all kind of problems in the field of conservation and restoration of works of art.

The lack of proper concepts of conservation causes serious damages on art relics so that we keep "education" and "research" as faith to hold several conferences and exhibitions in relation to conservation and restoration. Through related seminars and activities we'd like to let people, no matter how young or old they are, experience and understand proper methods of conservation of each artwork and then spread the correct ideas that implement "Lifelong learning", "Anytime learning" and "Learning by chance".

The Center is willing to disseminate the right information about conservation and restoration and put up a bridge of mutual trust between collectors and art relics, and even use our profession for feedback on history and culture.

We would like to thank the major sponsor Chen Cheng-po Foundation. They have made a significant contribution to the development of cultural materials conservation in Taiwan and now internationally, with the support of APTCCARN. And other sponsors.

This meeting has been supported by staff of Cheng Shiu University, Taiwan and the Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation (University of Melbourne, Australia) under the auspices of APTCCARN (Asia Pacific Tropical Climate Conservation Art Network). We thank you for your commitment and support in ensuring this meeting is a success.

Cheng Shiu University welcomes participants to the 4th APTCCARN Meeting.

 

From the 4th APTCCARN Organising Committee

Dr Nicole Tse, Founding Member APTCCARN & The Grimwade Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne

Dr Ana Labrador, Founding Member APTCCARN & Assistant Director, National Museum of the Philippines

Diana Tay, Paintings Conservator, Singapore

Welcome to the 4th APTCCARN Meeting in Taiwan at the Conservation Center, Cheng Shiu University. APTCCARN was inaugurated in 2009 at the Balai Seni Visual Negara (National Visual Art Gallery in Malaysia) and has since held meetings at the University of Melbourne in Australia, and Silpakorn University in Thailand. It was established in recognition of the need to support a geographically focussed practice of cultural materials conservation in the Asia Pacific and a maturing discipline. Over six years APTCCARN has built a community of practice from which approaches are emerging and revealing important information about the culture and conditions in the region. Our APTCCARN meetings provide a space for reflexive thinking to share conservation experiences and test new concepts or ideologies within the geographic focus of the Asia Pacific.

As the title alludes to, ‘Embracing Cultural Materials Conservation in the Tropics’, the 4th Meeting intends to highlight how we are actively and productively interacting with cultural heritage and whether commonalities exist among us. In reviewing past conservation approaches in the Asia Pacific region, underpinning many of them are Western notions of heritage. Institutions, communities and conservation practices have struggled with a tension between an object centred approach and scientific methods versus ones that are more value based and substantiated according to differences in institutional practices, development histories and each disciplinary leader’s foci. The very existence of APTCCARN recognises the need to develop regional approaches, however recent case studies and discussions have shown that they vary in complexity, resources and capacity. How this translates to principles or a regional discipline of cultural materials conservation are worthy of discussion at the 4th APTCCARN Meeting.

In saying this, a significant aspect of cultural materials conservation relates to the physical requirements of collections and their material stability. Agreeably the success of materials conservation is centrally focussed on stakeholder and community contexts of decision making, however an understanding of deterioration processes and object materiality are important. The knowledge of such matters does exist, as vested in people, objects and documents, however it has not been fully captured for an improved understanding of material stability in the tropics. These are other points for discussion.

The 4th APTCCARN Committee is very pleased that Conservation Center of Cheng Shiu University in Taiwan is hosting this event. Dr Ioseba Soraluze and the local organising committee have worked tirelessly over the past year to arrange the event details to its perfection. Hosting an international event like this takes a lot of commitment, attention to detail and we deeply thank them. We thank Dr Rujaya Abhakorn, Director of SEAMEO SPAFA, for his opening speech and engaging vision of cultural heritage in the region. Further thanks is extended to invited scholar, Prof. Hsiao Chong-rui of National Cheng Kung University of Taiwan in uncovering the materiality of Chen Cheng Po’s artistic practice. Lastly we thank the sponsors and particularly the Chen Cheng-po Cultural Foundation as a major sponsor. We hope you also enjoy the important exhibition on the artist’s work.

Thank you to all speakers, chairs and participants for attending the 4th APTCCARN Meeting on ‘Embracing Cultural Materials Conservation in the Tropics’.

 

Originally published online 25 November, 2015

Welcome Messages from the 3rd APTCCARN Meeting | The Conservation of Material Culture in Tropical Climates

From the Host Institution

Associate Professor Supanee Chayabutra, Director of The Material Research Centre For Art and Design at Silpakorn University, Thailand

‘The Conservation of Material Culture in Tropical Climates’ Symposium is a targeted forum for the dissemination and discussion of regionally relevant preservation solutions for Southeast Asia’s vast cultural record. Co-organised by the Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation (University of Melbourne, Australia) and Silpakorn University in Thailand under the APTCCARN (Asia Pacific Twentieth Century Conservation Art Network), the program brings international experts engaged with the conservation of material culture in hot, humid climates to this event in Thailand. The program will disseminate recent findings coordinated under the larger strategic agenda of APTCCARN and engage a broader audience to its activities and future programs.

Over three days the 3rd APTCCARN Meeting will address regionally relevant issues relating to the conservation of material culture where the ageing of artworks in tropical climates and individual artists choice of materials are the key factors influencing the preservation of vast collections of cultural heritage in tropical Southeast Asia. The 3rd APTCCARN Meeting will be delivered at Silpakorn University’s Nakhon Pathom Campus where the Faculty of Fine Arts, Materials Research Centre for Art and Design, and Silpakorn University’s Arts Centre are located. The program will include formal papers based on the APTCCARN research platforms and artist- conservator panel discussions presented in a Symposium context, together with practicum visits to the Art Centre, artists studios and both artists and industrial paint manufacturers to engage participants in the issues informing material behaviour in tropical climates and their methods of production.

Included in the program will also be a formal ceremony for the APTCCARN Honours Award to acknowledge the significant contribution a professional conservator has made to the conservation of cultural heritage in Southeast Asia.

2012 Conference Themes:

  • Artists Materials and Materiality
  • Conservation Practice
  • Communicating Conservation

Silpakorn University welcomes participants to the 3rd APTCCARN Meeting.

 

From the 3rd APTCCARN Organising Committee

Dr Nicole Tse, The Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Preservation methodologies for the conservation of cultural materials in tropical Southeast Asia presents many unique and challenging issues. There are vast collections of traditional and modern objects in public and private hands in Southeast Asia, and yet the preservation methodologies appropriate to the object’s value and materiality, the diverse tropical climates and related degradation mechanisms, and the in country resources, knowledge systems and expertise, are being re-evaluated and re-developed. Likewise, attitudes to cultural heritage conservation across tropical Southeast Asia, vary greatly both in their approach and in their philosophical origins. In many Southeast Asian countries we can trace a respect for, and an active use of and conservation of the past and its material culture through traditional systems. More recently in the twentieth century, preservation models have been based on scientific, museological principles as introduced through international charters, which then made their way into the conservation laboratories of the Southeast Asian national museums and galleries. Heritage professionals today are evaluating such conservation strategies in view of the traditional and contemporary cultures in which material culture exists.

‘The Conservation of Material Culture in Tropical Climates: the 3rd APTCCARN Meeting’ showcases the shared experiences, research and expertise that currently informs preservation methodologies across Southeast Asia. The wide-ranging and regionally relevant topics covered by the speakers includes paint properties and formulations; the use of traditional materials for contemporary use; the materials and techniques of manuscripts, organic materials, traditional and modern paintings; degradation mechanisms; and the diagnostic and practical tools for their conservation. The Meeting aims to provide a forum to test conservation methodologies for their appropriateness and effectiveness in the environment in which they are used.

The 3rd APTCCARN Committee welcomes participants to the 3rd APTCCARN Meeting to discuss regionally relevant topics and engage a broader audience to its activities and future programs. We thank Dr Pisit Charoenwongsa for his keynote speech and providing a broader and experienced perspective of the heritage conservation issues across Southeast Asia. We thank Silpakorn University for hosting the event, and particularly Khunying Kaisri Sri-arun, the president of Silpakorn University Council for preciding over the meeting opening, and the support of Dr Jarungsaeng Laksanaboonsong, Dean of the Faculty of Science. It is a delight to have this Meeting hosted in the peaceful surroundings of Nakhon Pathom Campus where the Faculty of Fine Arts, Materials Research Centre for Art and Design, and Silpakorn University’s Arts Centre are located. Further this program would not been possible without the support of the Silpakorn University Organising Committee, Dr. Thanit Pewnim and his team from Department ofChemistry for assisting with translations during the event, and to Mr.Vichaya Mukdamanee for also assisting with translations. Vichaya is an important Thai artist who has a commitment to art conservation in Thailand. We thank all the participants for attending the Meeting and look forward to the collaborations that can grow out of this event.

 

Originally published online 30 November, 2012.